Use of fire elevator and emergency measures

Classification:Public Propaganda

When a fire occurs in a high-rise building, firefighters take the fire elevator to fight the fire, which not only saves the time to reach the fire floor, but also reduces the physical consumption of firefighters. In the fire fighting battle, they can also timely deliver fire-fighting equipment to the fire scene. Therefore, fire elevators play a very important role in fire fighting.

1、 The setting scope of fire elevators is clearly specified in the code for fire protection design of buildings and code for fire protection design of high rise civil buildings, which requires that fire elevators should be set in the following five cases:

1. High rise class I civil public buildings;

2. Tower houses with ten floors or more;

3. Unit houses and corridor houses with 12 floors and above;

4. Other class II public buildings with a building height of more than 32 meters;

5. The building height is more than 32 meters, and there are high-rise workshops and warehouses with elevators.

In practical work, architectural engineering designers have designed fire elevators according to the above requirements. Even if some engineering designers do not design fire elevators according to the requirements of the code, the construction and review personnel of the public security fire supervision organ will also require them to add fire elevators according to the code.

2、 Function and usage of fire elevator

(1) In case of fire, how to determine which elevator is the fire elevator? A high-rise building has several elevators, and the fire elevator is basically used together with the passenger and cargo elevators (usually carrying passengers or goods, when entering the fire state, it has the fire function). How to determine which elevator is the fire elevator? Its main appearance features include the following aspects:

1. The fire elevator is equipped with a front room. The antechamber area of the independent fire elevator is: the antechamber area of the residential building is greater than 4.5 square meters; The front room area of public buildings and high-rise factory (warehouse) buildings is more than 6 square meters. When the front room of fire elevator and smoke proof staircase share the front room, its area is: the shared front room area of residential buildings is more than 6 square meters, and the shared front room area of public buildings and high-rise factory (warehouse) buildings is more than 10 square meters.

2. The front room of the fire elevator is equipped with class B fire door or fire shutter with stagnation function.

3. A special fire telephone is set in the lift car of the fire elevator.

4. An operation button for firefighters is set at the appropriate position of the elevator door on the first floor. The operation buttons are generally protected by glass sheets, and red words such as "special for fire protection" are set at appropriate positions.

5. When the normal power supply is cut off, the lighting in the non fire elevator has no power, but there is still lighting in the fire elevator.

6. The front room of the fire elevator is equipped with an indoor fire hydrant.

(2) When designing high-rise buildings, the function designer of the fire elevator designs the function of the fire elevator as: the fire elevator and the passenger (or cargo) elevator are used at the same time. In case of fire, under the instruction of the fire control center or the control of the first floor firefighters' special operation buttons, the following conditions should be achieved:

1. If the elevator is ascending, stop at the nearest floor immediately without opening the door, then return to the first floor station and automatically open the elevator door.

2. If the elevator is descending, immediately close the door and return to the first floor station, and automatically open the elevator door.

3. If the elevator is already on the first floor, immediately open the elevator door and enter the special state for firefighters.

4. The call button on each floor is inoperative, and the call is cut off.

5. Restore the command button function in the lift car for firefighters to operate.

6. The door closing button has no self holding function.

(3) Usage of fire elevator

1. After arriving at the front room (or shared front room) of the fire elevator on the first floor, the firefighters first break the glass sheet protecting the fire elevator button with their hand axe or other hard objects, and then place the fire elevator button in the on position. Due to different manufacturers, the appearance of the button is also different. Some buttons only have a small "red dot" painted on one end, and the end with "red dot" can be pressed down during operation; Some have two operation buttons, one is black and marked with English "off", the other is red and marked with English "on". When operating, press the red button marked with "on" to enter the fire state.

2. After the elevator enters the fire-fighting state, if the elevator is running, it will automatically descend to the first floor station and automatically open the door. If the elevator has stopped at the first floor, it will automatically open.

3. After firefighters enter the fire elevator car, they should press the door closing button tightly until the elevator door is closed. After the elevator starts, they can release their hands. Otherwise, if they release their hands during the door closing process, the door will open automatically and the elevator will not start. In some cases, it is not enough to press the door close button tightly. Press the button of the floor you want to reach with your other hand while pressing the door close button tightly until the elevator starts.

3、 Emergency measures in case of emergency

The situation at the fire scene is changeable, although the fire elevator is designed to use double circuit power supply, and an automatic switching device is set at the last level of distribution box. Then, what should firefighters do once the elevator stops running in the elevator car?

(1) . rescue methods for external personnel

When the fire elevator is in normal operation, the indicator light used to indicate the operation of the elevator in the front room of the elevator is illuminated. Once the power is cut off, the indicator light will naturally go out. At this time, the fire commander should immediately take the following two measures to rescue the personnel in the elevator.

1. Send personnel to the fire elevator machine room on the roof and manually lower the car in the elevator shaft to the first floor station. In order to ensure the safety of passengers, the elevator manufacturer designed the automatic protection device in case of power failure when designing the elevator. When the elevator loses power, in order to prevent the rapid rise of the lift car (due to the role of the elevator counterweight), the shaft of the winch is mechanically braked tightly, which is often referred to as "locking". After entering the elevator machine room, the rescue personnel (if possible, it is best to work with the enterprise elevator maintenance personnel) should quickly find a tool to release the "lock" (this tool is usually yellow, placed near the winch, and each elevator machine room has a set of two pieces in total) and remove the highest protective cover located on the side of the winch (the cover is fixed by two bolts, and the two bolts can be removed by hand without the help of tools), After the protective cover is removed, first use a hook shaped tool in the special tool to insert the hook into the small hole on the lower side of the fixed protective cover, and then use the lever principle to press down the connecting rod at the highest position. At this time, the elevator car will rise under the action of the elevator counterweight object. This is what we don't want. How to make the car fall to the first floor? One of the two special tools is needed. After inserting the tool into the shaft coaxial with the winch, one person presses the connecting rod with a hook shaped tool, and the other person rotates clockwise, and the car in the elevator shaft will fall until it reaches the first floor.

2. Send people to knock the elevator door layer by layer to determine the parking position of the elevator car, and then carry out rescue. Due to the shielding effect of the elevator car and the elevator shaft wall, the radio station carried by the firefighters will lose its function. At this time, the commander can send someone to knock the elevator door of each floor, supplemented by shouting, to determine the position of the elevator car. After the position is determined, first destroy the key hole on the elevator shaft wall door with an axe or pliers, and then insert it with a flat screwdriver and press it down. Because the hook that closes the elevator shaft wall door is unhooked, the door will open automatically; After the door on the elevator shaft wall is opened, then open the door on the lift car. It is very simple to open the door on the car. First, insert the hand axe into the door gap between the two doors. After the door gap can extend the hand, a person can use the second hand to move the two doors left and right, so as to open the car door and rescue the people in the elevator. Because the pulling force of this door is 20kg.

(2) . self rescue methods for personnel in elevator car

As the external rescuers need to determine the location of the roof elevator machine room and try to open the door of the elevator machine room, and then determine which is the winch of the fire elevator, with the help of special tools, it takes a long time; When the second method is adopted, it is first necessary to determine the parking position of the car layer by layer, and then open the two doors (elevator shaft wall door and car door) with the help of tools. The time required will not be too short. Therefore, the personnel inside the car should help themselves.

There are two ways to save yourself:

First, the person in the elevator car first forces the door of the car open (the method is the same as the method of opening the car door in the second method of external personnel rescue), and then find the upper left part of the door on the right half of the elevator shaft wall. At this time, his hand will touch the two small wheels arranged up and down. On the left side of the small wheel (about 30-40 mm away from the small wheel below), there is a metal strip. Push the metal strip up with his hand, The door on the elevator shaft wall will automatically open, and the personnel can escape from the elevator shaft and save themselves successfully. Due to the different parking positions of the elevator car in the elevator shaft, when the car door is opened, once there is no lighting, you should carefully touch it. After finding the metal strip in the upper left corner of the right door, push the metal strip upward with your hand, and you can escape.

Second, when the car door is opened and facing the reinforced concrete shaft wall, the following measures can only be taken.

First, use the method of bridging the shoulders (that is, one person squats down, and the other person puts his feet on the squatter's shoulders) to climb up, destroy the top of the car with his hand axe, open the channel from the top of the car, and enter the top of the car. When the elevator manufacturer produces the elevator, there is a manhole in the middle of the top of the car and the farthest third of the car door for people to enter and exit. This manhole is closed with a thin metal plate, which is easy to be damaged.

Second, after entering the car top, the person who goes up first and then pulls the person in the car to the car top, and then looks for the door on the elevator shaft wall. When finding the right side door of the elevator shaft wall door, move your hand along the door to the upper left of the right door and touch the two wheels arranged up and down. Then, use the first method to open the door on the shaft wall and enter the front room of the fire elevator, so as to escape.


1. In the above self rescue process, if firefighters carry lighting tools, it will become very easy;

2. If the elevator car drops in the process of self rescue, whether people are in the car or on the top of the car, all self rescue measures must be stopped immediately to strengthen self-protection, and self rescue can be carried out after the elevator stops running.